55, No. renaissance: golden age of europe. ISBN: 978-1-68380-273-0 Creative Commons Licensing This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.  Thus, Florence contrasted sharply with the rural, tradition-bound society of medieval Europe; it was less hierarchical and more outward looking and concerned with secular objectives, such as commerce. He told me that the Library had reissued three Golden Age mysteries by the highly obscure Mavis Doriel Hay.  Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 358-359.  Leon Battista Alberti, ‘On painting and on sculpture’, 223; David Bull. The Renaissance is most closely associated with Italy, where it began in the 14thcentury, though countries such as Germany, England and France went throug… 4, (Winter, 1999), 1010. Florence: The Golden Age 1138-1737, 8. 43 (1980), 130; Selwyn Brinton. SURVEY . Kent. A major reason why fifteenth and sixteenth century historians believed that Lorenzo’s period of influence was a unique and remarkable era was because of the emphasis placed on a humanist education, especially of talented or wealthy Florentine individuals, as it led to a revitalization in the arts to occur. While taking the classical past as its model, the Renaissance was one of the most creative periods in human history, comparable only to the Golden Age of Hellenic Athens in the fifth century before Christ. artistic and literary achievements.  Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 405-407; Charles Trinkaus, Renaissance Transformations of Late Medieval Thought, (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 1999), 327. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Italy are recognized as one of the most brilliant periods in world art history with Florence in Tuscany, at its heart.  Individual patrons also allowed a freedom from the church, which had previously limited subjects to the catholic faith where religious subjects had dominated. C O N T E N T S: KEY TOPICS. The Italian Renaissance and the Harlem Renaissance. This motivated me to finish my book, which I called The Golden Age of Murder. The Renaissance is a period in the history of Europe beginning in about 1400, and following the Medieval period.  This was because of the humanist education and its emphasis on platonic ideals, as it helped to create the most beautiful pieces of artwork, which were supported by wealthy patrons and occurred in a peaceful and successful commercial republic.  Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, 1; Niccolo Machiavelli, The Florentine History, 273. ‘Lorenzo…amico degli uomini da bene – Lorenzo de’Medici and Oligarchy’, in Lorenzo il Magnifico e il suo mondo, edited by G. C. Garfagnini, (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1994), p 44-45; John M Najemy, ‘Baron’s Machiavelli and Renaissance Republicanism’, in The American Historical Review, Vol. The Florentines believed they were living in a golden age. secular.  In sculpture, according to fifteenth century art critic Alberti, sculptures by Donatello and platonic and humanist ideals that stressed the highest ideals of beauty and perfection had influenced Michelangelo under the patronage of Lorenzo to create the Madonna of the Stairs in 1492, and the after Lorenzo’s death his famous David sculpture of 1504. pletchereej | Translated by Mario Domandi, (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 1. 8, No. Hence, Florence during this period had moved away from the darkness of the Medieval Ages into the lightness of the Renaissance, which had created a more civilized society and became the basis of what we know western culture to represent. ‘On Law and Justice’, in The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, edited by Kenneth Bartlett, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 125. In the 7th century BCE(before common era), a greek poet named Hesiod wrote a poem describing five ages of man. As I got older, I went to great lengths to track down other writers from the Golden Age, and haunted second hand bookshops. The real Renaissance is that period of time that spans the gap between the Middle Ages and life that is somewhat more recognizable by us modern folk.  Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, p 1; Niccolo Machiavelli. After WWI, African-Americans from farmlands began to migrate to the cities, like Harlem in New York, to seek new opportunities. the most popular genre in Spain, together with the anonymous ballads (romances) that were sung and recited everywhere. Fact 4: The word ‘renaissance’ means ‘rebirth’ in French.  M Ficino. A fourteenth century citizen did not display his wealth in a dangerous, uncertain world. The order of these historical events were 1) the golden age of Greece, 2) the fall of the Roman empire, 3) crusades, 4) renaissance. DANIEL WHITE is an Australian adviser and former lawyer who focuses on the key Labor theme of 'security and opportunity'. ‘Commentary on Plato’s Symposium on Love: On the Two Origins of Love and the Double Venus’, 119; M Ficino. The Islamic Golden Age, or the Islamic Renaissance, is traditionally dated from the mid-8th to the mid-13th century A.D. (sack of Baghdad) but has been extended to …  For example, in both Guicciardini’s and Machiavelli’s respective accounts of the History of Florence, which included three parts that began with antiquity, which was followed by the Middle Ages and then by the age of rebirth that had just begun; they had revealed the magnificent period under Lorenzo’s influence and how it had been a huge break from the preceding period. My enthusiasm for Golden Age stories dates back to my discovery of Christie when I was eight years old. James S. Holmes and Hans van Marle, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959), 245; Peter E. Bondanella, Francesco Guicciardini, (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1976), 28. 25 (1992), 67-83; Ronald Lightbown, Sandoro Botticelli: Volume II Complete Catalogue, (London: Paul Elek, 1978), 64. 4 (Dec., 1943), 163; Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, (London: Penguin Books, 1990), 85. 9, (1962), 9; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, 71. The Renaissance was a turning point in history, where everything improved and people's opinion and ideas change. It was this unique setting of humanist thought, artistic achievement and republicanism in Florence under Lorenzo’s de-facto rule that fifteenth and sixteenth century historians stated that Lorenzo amazingly was able to usher in a period of ‘perfect peace’, which gives further weight to the argument that the Renaissance was ‘a Golden age’. The Golden Age of Greece and the Renaissance in Europe were both characterized mainly by. Translated by Sidney Alexander, (London: The Macmillian Company, 1969), p 9; Paul Strathern, The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, (London: Jonathan Cape, 2003), 210; M.M. In it he describes a place called Arcadia, a sort of utopia. From the Renaissance to England’s Golden Age Timeline Cards.  Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 405-407; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, p 71; Herbert Weisinger, ‘Renaissance Theories of the Revival of the Fine Arts’, 163; Roberta Garner, ‘Jacob Burckhardt as a Theorist of Modernity: Reading the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy’, in Sociological Theory, Vol.  While, in the field of history and philosophy the invention of the printing press in the late fifteenth century began to revolutionize the dissemination of knowledge. By now it was 2013, and at this point I had a chance conversation with Rob Davies, recently arrived in the British Library’s Publications department. The Renaissance 1-89 The Reformation 91-145 England in the Golden Age 147-201.  M Ficino.  Guicciardini, Machiavelli and Ficino were all well aware of the importance of patronage, as patrons funded their own historical accounts. - worldly and concerned with here and how, wealth created the…. The Renaissance was a rebirth of the human spirit, a rebirth of creativity.  Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, complied by P. Simons, in The Renaissance in Italy - Course Reader, compiled by Catherine Kovesi, (University Melbourne, 2005), 73. The Harlem Renaissance was a significant historical movement that originated in Harlem, New York and helped establish the city as an African American cultural center. Nevertheless, these historians also noted that Florence during this period was also characterized by corruption and repression, and the people of Florence had to adhere to Lorenzo’s de-facto rule, whereby their civil liberties were curtailed. Explaining the Renaissance 3.2.1. Islam emerged, the Byzantine empire reached its golden age, new kingdoms and dynasties emerged, and Asia and the yet ‘undiscovered’ Americas had their own parallel history. You are free: Bullard, ‘The magnificent Lorenzo de’Medici: between myth and history’, in Politics and Culture in Early Modern Europe. Bullard, ‘The magnificent Lorenzo de’Medici: between myth and history’, 30; Nicolai Rubinstein, The Government of Florence Under the Medici (1434 to 1494), v; Thomas Puttfarken, ‘Golden Age and Justice in Sixteenth-Century Florentine Political Thought and Imagery: Observations on Three Pictures by Jacopo Zucchi’, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtland Institutes, Vol. ‘Two Portraits by Leonardo: “Ginevra de’Benci” and the “Lady with an Ermine”’, in Artibus et Historiae, Vol. ... writers, painters, sculptors, architects and mathematicians was seen by people as a Golden Age, a time when things were beautiful, well-organised and well-run.  M Ficino.  For example, Lorenzo used personal diplomacy, as well as ordered the army to punish members of the Pazzi family who tried to challenge his tyrannical power in 1478. Generally considered to stretch from the 14 th century to the 17 th , it started as a cultural explosion in Florence and much like the black plague, spread through all of Europe. The Golden Age of Drama - The Renaissance The Golden Age of Drama also known as the Elizabethan era went on during the years of Queen Elizabeth’s I reign, between the years 1558-1603. ‘Commentary on Plato’s Symposium on Love: On the Two Origins of Love and the Double Venus’, 119; Ronald Lightbown, Sandoro Botticelli: Volume II Complete Catalogue, 64.  Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, 5; Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 256. • You are free: to Share —to copy, distribute, and transmit the work to Remix - everyone should receive a liberal education including readin…. - rebirth of the greek and roman culture.  Benedetto Dei, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 70-71; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, p 33; Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, 4. I will also only be using fifteenth and sixteenth century historian’s interpretations to show why it was a Golden age.  Guicciardini stated that it was in this milieu that the city ‘was not free’ and that the citizens were ‘tyrannized’ by Lorenzo.  Therefore, the role of trade and banking opened Florence to the world giving it great confidence, and led wealthy Florentines such as bankers to become patrons, in order to help add to the city’s greatness, and in so doing they created an age of magnificence that valued artworks of exceptional quality. What the New Hollywood era did for movies, the Renaissance Age did for animation. Unanswered Questions. - italian … Despite the fact that Florence was a peaceful republic for most of Lorenzo’s period of influence, according to fifteenth and sixteenth century historians one must also understand that Florence was also characterized by corruption and political tensions under the repressive de-facto rule of Lorenzo, whereby the citizens were not free and their civil liberties were limited. The idea of the Renaissance as an age of gold after an age of darkness was actually a tale spun by the humanists themselves, and makes the important point that this was a very self-conscious movement, which shaped its own reputation.  Bruni quote was from - Gene Brucker, Florence: The Golden Age 1138-1737, (New York: Abbeville Press, 1983), p 7; J Huizinga, Men and Ideas: History, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, trans.  Lorenzo also instituted a new council of seventy in 1480, which secretly became the supreme agency of control of Florence, and in the process this council increased the Medici’s family power.  Further, according to Dei, it was the great wealth amassed by Florentine merchants, bankers and industrialists in their business activities, which had taken them to the four corners of the known world that financed Renaissance cultural achievements, especially in the arts. 1 (Mar., 1983), 8.  This showed that Lorenzo was an exceptional leader and that he played an integral role in making this period be remembered as ‘a Golden Age’.  Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici – 1509’, 76.  While, Ficino a neo-Platonist also recognized the importance of a humanist education, as it led him to become the leader of the Platonic Academy whereby he taught and influenced many major artists of the time such as Michelangelo who adopted Platonic ideals in his works, as in his famous sculpture the David.  Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici – 1509’, 75.  While, according to Guicciardini, Lorenzo’s death was deeply grieved by artists who had ‘received highly paid commissions from him’, because of his appreciation of humanist and platonic thought. Nonetheless, these features of Florence do not detract enough from the outstanding artistic achievements of the Renaissance, as Florence had moved away from the feudal and church dominated Medieval Ages and embraced humanist and neo-platonic ideals, which had created ‘a Golden Age’ in the history of humanity.  Despite fifteenth century Italian republics being different to twenty-first century republics, Ficino often spoke highly of the ‘glory…[of] the Florentine Republic’. The ivory tower remain important, the history of Italy: 5fe7bb8249da9adc the renaissance was the golden age of: Your IP: 184.108.40.206 • &! For animation of great growth in church the renaissance was the golden age of: and it further developed the gregorian chant and history ’ 223. 2.0 now from the recent Renaissance is the growth of security studies within the academic world Medici family detective made... 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